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Even with such a serious loss of warriors, the historian R. David Edmunds notes that it was not enough to cause the near elimination of an entire people. He suggests two additional causes. They had no immunity to the new diseases and suffered high rates of fatalities. Ho-Chunk accounts said the victims turned yellow, which is not a trait of smallpox , however.

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Edmunds notes as a third cause of losses the following historic account: that many of the Ho-Chunk's traditional enemies, the Illiniwek, came to help the tribe at their time of suffering and famine , aggravated by the loss of their hunters. The Winnebago reportedly [ citation needed ] attacked the Illiniwek and ate the dead [ dubious — discuss ]. Enraged, additional Illiniwek warriors retaliated and killed nearly all the Winnebago. After peace was established between the French and Iroquois in , many of the Algonquian peoples returned to their homelands to the east.

The Ho-Chunk were relieved of the pressure on their territory.

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After , while some remained in the Green Bay area, most returned inland. A count from gives a population of In , they numbered 2, or more. A census in reported 4,, but in the number given is only 2, Like other American Indian tribes, the Ho-Chunk suffered great losses during the smallpox epidemics of —58 and In the 19th-century epidemic, they lost nearly one-quarter of their population. Through a series of forced moves imposed by the U.


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Army's repeated roundups and removals. The U. The Ho-Chunk in Nebraska have gained independent federal recognition as a tribe and have a reservation in Thurston County. Before Europeans ventured into Ho-Chunk territory, the Ho-Chunk were known to hunt, farm and gather food from local sources, including nuts, berries, roots and edible leaves.

They knew what the forest and river's edge had to give, and both genders had a role in making best use of resources. With the changing seasons, Ho-Chunk families would move from area to area to find food. For example, many families would return to Black River Falls, Wisconsin to pick berries in the summer. Women of Ho-Chunk society were responsible for growing, gathering and processing food for their families, including the cultivation of varieties of corn and squash, in order to have different types through the growing season; and gathering a wide variety of roots, nuts and berries, as well as sap from maple trees.

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In addition, women learned to recognize and use a wide range of roots and leaves for medicinal and herbal purposes. Women also processed and cooked game, making dried meats combined with berries, which could sustain the people and hunters when traveling. They tanned the hides to make clothing and storage bags. They used most parts of the game for tools, binding, clothing, and coverings for dwellings. They were responsible for the survival of the families, caring for the children as well as elders.

The main role of the Ho-Chunk man was as a hunter, in addition to a warrior when needed. Leaders among the men acted in political relations with other tribes or peoples.

As hunters, they would catch fish by spearing them and clubbing the fish to death. The men would also hunt game such as muskrat, mink, otter, beaver, and deer. Besides having a guardian spirit, men would also try to acquire protection and powers from specific spirits, which was done by making offerings along with tobacco.

The first part honored the night-spirits and the second part honored the Thunderbird spirit. The blessings that these spirits gave the men were embodied in objects that together made the war-bundle. These objects could include feathers, bones, skins, flutes, and paints. Before the United States government removed the Ho-Chunk from their native land of Wisconsin, the tribe made up of 12 different clans.

These clans are listed below. The clans were associated with animal spirits that represented the traditional responsibilities within the nation; each clan had a role in the survival of the people. Like other Native Americans, the Ho-Chunk had rules generally requiring people to marry outside their clans. The kinship system was based in the family, and gave structure to descent and inheritance rules.

Although the tribe is patrilineal today, anthropologists believe they may have had a matrilineal kinship system in the 17th century, before their major losses. At that time, the matriarchs of a clan would name its chief, and they could reclaim the position if they disapproved of his actions. The Ho-Chunk may have shifted to the patrilineal system due to marriage into other tribes, or under the influence of the male-oriented fur trade.

This tribe is headquartered in Black River Falls, Wisconsin. They are the larger of the two tribes. Of the 7, tribe members as of May 23, ; 5, lived in Wisconsin, and 2, lived elsewhere. They include 3, males and 3, females; 1, are minors; 4, are adults; and are elders. The largest concentrations are in Jackson , Clark , and Monroe counties in Wisconsin.

The Ho-Chunk Nation established a written constitution. It is governed by an elected council. As of [update] , the current president is Marlon WhiteEagle. Since the late 20th-century, the tribe has developed and operates six casinos in Wisconsin to generate revenues for its people and provide employment:. The council has used revenues to develop infrastructure, healthcare and educational support for its people.

As part of their former traditional territory, the property holds historical, archeological, sacred and cultural resources important to their people. It is a acre parcel in Sauk County, Wisconsin.

Whiteclay, Nebraska

It said it was unwilling to spend monies to conduct the environmental assessment. The Ho-Chunk are continuing to pursue the case, as they note that, between and , the Army spent millions of dollars in environmental assessment and cleanup to prepare the property for transfer. The tribe has a reservation in northeastern Nebraska [30] and western Iowa. The Winnebago Indian Reservation lies primarily in the northern part of Thurston and a small part of Dixon counties in Nebraska, with an additional portion in Woodbury County, Iowa.

A small plot of off-reservation land of The total land area is The Iowa portion was originally west of the Missouri River and within Nebraska boundaries.

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But, after the United States Army Corps of Engineers changed the course of the river, some of the reservation land was redefined as falling within the boundaries of Iowa. The tribe successfully argued that the land belonged to them under the terms of the deed prior to diversion of the river. This land has a postal address of Sloan, Iowa , as rural addresses are normally covered by the nearest post office. The census reported a population of 2, persons living on these lands. The largest community is the village of Winnebago , with other communities in Emerson and Thurston, Nebraska.

In their enrolled population was estimated at 4, The federally recognized Omaha also have a reservation in Thurston County. Together, the Native American tribes occupy the entire land area of Thurston County. The Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska established a written constitution. It is governed by an elected nine-person council.

Since the Winnebago tribe has owned and operated the WinnaVegas Casino in the Iowa portion of its reservation. The tribe has legalized alcohol sales on the reservation in order to retain revenues that formerly went to the state through liquor taxes paid to retailers off the reservation. The Army however, speculated Big Foot was on his way to join the other "hostiles" assumed to be in the Bad Lands. Units were ordered to the field to locate and obtain the surrender of Big Foot and his followers.

Whitside, intercepted this cold, tired, and hungry band on the main road near Porcupine Butte. The fact offers further evidence of Big Foot's peaceful intentions. He was leading his band to Pine Ridge, and not to the Stronghold in the Bad Lands as the army contended. Big Foot, being ill with pneumonia and not wanting a fight, promptly surrendered to Whitside. Without further incident, Big Foot and his followers were escorted to Wounded Knee Creek to camp for the night. Whitside intended to start for the agency at Pine Ridge some 17 miles away first thing the next morning.


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During the night however, Whitside was reinforced by the remainder of the 7th Cavalry, lead by Colonel James Forsyth who assumed command of the entire force. The Artillery unit came equipped with 4 rapid fire Hotchkiss Mountain Cannons. These guns fire explosive shells weighing a little more than 2 pounds each at the rate of 50 per minute and had an effective range of 4, yards. Total command strength of the Army present was now soldiers. Forsyth's orders were to disarm Big Foot's band and take them to the railhead at Gordon, Nebraska.

Where they would be transported south, and held until the troubles passed. On the morning of December 29th, Lakota men were assembled in a council ring and ordered by Col. Forsyth to surrender their arms.

The Battle of Whiteclay -- Pine Ridge

The council was held in front of the tent used to house Big Foot who was still sick and suffering from exposure.